GPRA: Performance Management and Performance Measurement
Performance Management is the systematic process by which an agency involves its employees, as individuals and members of a group, in improving organizational effectiveness in the accomplishment of the agency’s mission and goals. Performance Management uses performance measurement information to help set agreed-upon performance goals, allocate and prioritize resources, inform managers to either confirm or change current policy or program directions to meet those goals, and report on the success in meeting performance goals.
Training plays an important role within performance management to help facilitate employee development and organizational improvement. It is important to understand that while training alone cannot improve performance, it is integral in achieving individual and organizational goals.
In January 2010, the US Congress passed The 2010 Government Performance Results Modernization Act (GPRA2010), updating the Government Performance Results Act of 1993. GPRA 2010, also referred to as “GPRMA” or “The Modernization Act,” provides guidance for agencies to implement highly results-oriented Performance Management systems, detailing over 150 changes to the 1993 law. GovLoop has provided its readers a PDF summary of GPRA 2010, available here. The guide can also be found on their original post, available here.
Performance Measurement is the ongoing monitoring and reporting of program accomplishments, particularly progress toward pre-established goals. It is typically conducted by program or agency management. Performance measures may address the type or level of program activities conducted (process), the direct products and services delivered by a program (outputs), or the results of those products and services (outcomes). A “program” may be any activity, project, function, or policy that has an identifiable purpose or set of objectives.
5 CFR 430.301 states “Chapter 43 of title 5, United States Code, provides for performance management for the Senior Executive Service (SES), the establishment of SES performance appraisal systems, and appraisal of senior executive performance.”
Federal Government Tools and Resources
Performance Management Resources for Employees, Supervisors, Managers and Executives
- The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) offers a quarterly Performance Management forum, held at agency headquarters in DC. A copy of the June 2012 Presentation slides can be viewed here: OPM Training and Performance Management Forum Slides . For more information, please contact the Senior Executive Services & Performance Management Office at 202-606-8046.
- HR University Manager's Corner: Developed by OPM, the HRU Manager’s Corner is a valuable online resource offering free and low-cost performance management training for managers and supervisors. There is also a suite of Performance Management Training courses on the main site: www.hru.gov, courtesy of the U.S. Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI).
- President's 2013 Budget: Chapter on Performance Management
SES Basic Appraisal System Information
SES Basic Appraisal System Training for Executives
· Basic Appraisal System Overview
· Appraisal System Detailed Slide Deck
Performance Measurement Resources
· Performance Improvement Community MAX Page
· Congressional Research Service: Changes to the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA): Overview of the New Framework of Products and Processes//////Obama Administration Agenda for Government Performance: Evolution and Related Issues for Congress
· GAO Reports: Managing for Results: Agencies Have Elevated Performance Management Leadership Roles, but Additional Training Is Needed.///// Managing for Results: Agencies Should More Fully Develop Priority Goals under the GPRA Modernization Act
· Validating Measures: Performance Plans: Selected Approaches for Verification and Validation of Agency Performance Information
· Planning, Goal-Setting and Prioritization: The Results Act: An Evaluator’s Guide to Assessing Agency Annual Performance Plans
Resources on Using Analytics
· Using Analytics: From Data to Decisions: The Power of Analytics
· Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Reducing Crime in Indian Country Through the Use of Analytics Webcast
Taken from Best Practices in Performance Measurement:
Alignment with organization goals is crucial for successful performance measurement systems. Top leaders should convey the organization's vision, mission, and strategic direction to employees and external customers clearly, concisely, and repeatedly. Organizations can achieve this by developing conceptual frameworks that include balanced measures, target setting, and benchmarking.
- Communication is crucial for establishing and maintaining a performance measurement system. Take an active approach by organizing interactive, group-based events (e.g. town hall meetings and focus groups) in addition to using traditional methods of print media (e.g. newsletters and publications) and web-based technology (e.g. video conferencing).
- Create a positive performance measurement culture by integrating employee perspectives into all phases of the process.
- Treat performance measurement as an ongoing process to develop and progress your organization at all levels