Skip to page navigation
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Learning Agenda

Introduction

The Foundations for Evidence-Based Policymaking Act of 2018 requires agencies to develop “a systematic plan for identifying and addressing policy questions relevant to the programs, policies, and regulations of the agency.”[29] The learning agenda serves as the required systematic plan, “an evidence-building roadmap to support effective and efficient agency functioning”[30]. The learning agenda is aligned to the agency’s strategic plan and reflects the key priorities of the Administration and the agency.

To guide development of OPM’s learning agenda, OPM created a Research Steering Committee of executives and managers from across the agency. The Committee identified and prioritized organizational knowledge gaps and potential questions that, if answered, would help OPM deliver better policies and services for its customers.

OPM also sought stakeholder feedback to inform development of its learning agenda, conducting forums, focus group discussions, and interviews with Federal Government Evaluation Officers, the Chief Human Capital Officers Council, stakeholders at partner agencies, good government groups, university professors and researchers, labor unions, employee associations, and employee resource groups.

Following the identification of potential questions, the Research Steering Committee categorized the questions and aligned them to the draft FY 2022-2026 OPM strategic plan by removing or modifying those that did not align with the strategic objectives or Administration priorities and proposing new questions. The Research Steering Committee identified 13 broad learning agenda questions that were durable priorities for the period of the strategic plan, as well as associated priority questions and additional questions of interest.

OPM will seek to answer the associated priority questions identified, assuming resource availability. Associated priority questions will be updated annually so that they reflect the current Administration and agency priorities. The additional questions of interest are included to signal OPM’s research interests to external parties and may be prioritized as resources and capacity permit.

OPM holds agency-wide data-driven organizational performance review meetings (Results OPM meetings), no less than quarterly, where agency leadership reviews performance results (via agency dashboards) and assesses progress toward the agency’s strategic goals. OPM plans to use existing agency-wide management processes, such as the Results OPM meetings, to promote the timely communication of results from evidence-building activities to inform decisions, improve policies and services, support the agency in the achievement of its strategic goals, and build a culture of continuous learning and improvement. OPM currently incorporates evidence-building activities (such as in-depth analyses) into the Results OPM meetings and plans to incorporate other types of evidence (such as program evaluation results) to provide agency leadership with additional data on what strategies are working or not working in achieving the agency’s strategic goals.

OPM will also explore channels to disseminate results to key stakeholders as appropriate, including OPM’s website and communications, relevant conferences, academic journals, and media.

Summary of learning agenda questions aligned to OPM FY 2022-2026 strategic goals and objectives

OPM’s learning agenda questions are aligned to its FY 2022-2026 strategic plan. Below find the strategic goals and objectives and the associated learning agenda questions.

Goal 1

Position the federal government as a model employer, improving the government-wide satisfaction index score by 4 points

Achieve a federal workforce that is drawn from the diversity of America, exhibited at all levels of government, by supporting agencies in fostering diverse, equitable, inclusive, and accessible workplaces. By FY 2026, increase a government-wide Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility index score by 6 percentage points.

Question 1. How can OPM effectively promote Diversity, Equity, Inclusion and Accessibility (DEIA) through workforce policies and programs?

Develop a government-wide vision and strategy and implement policies and initiatives that embrace the future of work and position the federal government as a model employer with respect to hiring, talent development, competitive pay, benefits, and workplace flexibilities.

Question 2. What strategies and approaches are needed to position the federal government for the post-pandemic work environment and the future of work?

Question 3. How do telework, remote work, and hybrid environments affect agencies, employees, and customers? What strategies are effective for optimizing telework, remote work, and hybrid environments?

Question 4. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the current federal classification and pay systems? How could classification and pay systems be improved?

Question 5. How can OPM design employee benefits and compensation to better meet the needs of federal employees?

Question 6. Do government-wide performance management regulations and guidance meet the needs of managers and employees? What strategies are effective in improving performance management?

Build the skills of the federal workforce through hiring and training. By FY 2026, increase the government-wide percentage of respondents who agree that their work unit has the job-relevant knowledge and skills necessary to accomplish organizational goals by 4 points.

Question 7. What challenges or barriers exist in the hiring process? What are effective actions to address these challenges or barriers?

Question 8. What strategies are effective in encouraging adoption of rigorous hiring assessments within all pay systems?

Question 9. What strategies are effective for increasing and maintaining the capacity of the federal workforce to meet critical agency needs?

Champion the federal workforce by engaging and recognizing federal employees and elevating their work. By FY 2026, increase the number of social media engagements on recognition-focused content by 15 percent.

Goal 2

Transform OPM’s organizational capacity and capability to better serve as the leader in federal human capital management

Build the skills of the OPM workforce and attract skilled talent. By FY 2026, increase the percentage of OPM employees who agree that their work unit has the job-relevant knowledge and skills necessary to accomplish organizational goals by 3 percentage points.

Question 10. What OPM practices effectively promote internal coordination and improved service delivery across its functions?

Improve OPM’s relationships and standing as the human capital management thought leader. By FY 2026, increase the percent of CHCOs who strongly agree that OPM treats them as a strategic partner by 23 percentage points.

Question 10. What OPM practices effectively promote internal coordination and improved service delivery across its functions?

Improve OPM’s program efficacy through comprehensive risk management and contract monitoring across the agency. By FY 2026, achieve the OMB-set target for the percentage of spending under category management.

Question 10. What OPM practices effectively promote internal coordination and improved service delivery across its functions?

Establish a sustainable funding and staffing model for OPM that better allows the agency to meet its mission. By FY 2026, increase the percentage of OPM managers who indicate that they have sufficient resources to get their jobs done by 4 percentage points.

Question 10. What OPM practices effectively promote internal coordination and improved service delivery across its functions?

Modernize OPM IT by establishing an enterprise-wide approach, eliminating fragmentation, and aligning IT investments with core mission requirements. By FY 2026, increase the percentage of software projects implementing adequate incremental development to 95 percent.

Question 10. What OPM practices effectively promote internal coordination and improved service delivery across its functions?

Promote a positive organizational culture where leadership drives an enterprise mindset, lives the OPM values, and supports employee engagement and professional growth. By FY 2026, increase OPM’s Leaders Lead Score by 3 points.

Question 10. What OPM practices effectively promote internal coordination and improved service delivery across its functions?

Goal 3

Create a human-centered customer experience by putting the needs of OPM’s customers at the center of OPM’s workforce services, policy, and oversight, increasing OPM’s customer satisfaction index score for targeted services to 4.3 out of 5

Enhance the Retirement Services customer experience by providing timely, accurate, and responsive service that addresses the diverse needs of OPM’s customers. By FY 2026, improve the customer satisfaction score to 4.2 out of 5.

Question 11. To what extent are OPM’s High Impact Service Providers meeting customer needs? What strategies are effective for improving customer service and satisfaction?

Create a personalized USAJOBS experience to help applicants find relevant opportunities. By FY 2026, improve applicant satisfaction to 4.1 out of 5 for the desktop platform and to 4.5 out of 5 for the mobile platform.

Question 11. To what extent are OPM’s High Impact Service Providers meeting customer needs? What strategies are effective for improving customer service and satisfaction?

Create a seamless customer and intermediary experience across OPM’s policy, service, and oversight functions. By FY 2026, increase the average score for helpfulness of OPM human capital services in achieving human capital objectives to 4.5 out of 5.

Transform the OPM website to a user-centric and user-friendly website. By FY 2026, achieve an average effectiveness score of 4 out of 5.

Goal 4

Provide innovative and data-driven solutions to enable agencies to meet their missions, increasing the percentage of users throughout government who agree that OPM offered innovative solutions while providing services or guidance by 4 points

Foster a culture of creativity and innovation within OPM. By FY 2026, increase the percentage of employees who agree that innovation is valued by 4 points.

Increase focus on government-wide policy work by shifting more low-risk delegations of authorities to agencies.

Question 12. What strategies are effective in improving oversight efficiency and agency adherence to HR laws and policy guidance?

Expand the quality and use of OPM’s federal human capital data. By FY 2026, increase the percentage of CHCO survey respondents who agree that OPM provides agencies with high quality workforce data and information to be used in decision-making by 20 percentage points.

Improve OPM’s ability to provide strategic human capital management leadership to agencies through expansion of innovation, pilots, and identification of best leading across government. By FY 2026, provide federal agencies with 25 leading practices.

Question 13. Are OPM’s human capital policies and guidance achieving their intended outcomes?

Objective 4.5: Revamp OPM’s policy-making approach to be proactive, timely, systematic, and inclusive. By FY 2026, increase the percent of CHCOs who agree that OPM’s policy approach is responsive to agency needs by 8 percentage points.

Question 13. Are OPM’s human capital policies and guidance achieving their intended outcomes?

Streamline federal human capital regulations and guidance to reduce administrative burden and promote innovation while upholding merit system principles. By FY 2026, improve CHCO agreement that human capital policy changes resulted in less administrative burden to agencies by 8 percentage points.


OPM Learning Agenda Questions

How can OPM effectively promote Diversity, Equity, Inclusion and Accessibility (DEIA) through workforce policies and programs?

Strategic plan alignment

Goal 1: Position the federal government as a model employer, improving the government-wide satisfaction index score by 4 points

  • Objective 1.1: Achieve a federal workforce that is drawn from the diversity of America, exhibited at all levels of government, by supporting agencies in fostering diverse, equitable, inclusive, and accessible workplaces. By FY 2026, increase a government-wide Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility index score by 6 percentage points.

Background

As part of the goal of being a model employer, the federal government has an opportunity to set the standard for promoting diversity, equity, inclusion, and accessibility. Many underserved communities remain under-represented in the federal workforce, especially in positions of leadership. In June 2021, President Biden signed Executive Order 14035 Diversity, Equity, Inclusion and Accessibility in the federal Workforce. The Order establishes a government-wide initiative, led by OPM and OMB, to advance diversity, equity, inclusion, and accessibility in all parts of the federal workforce.

To advance DEIA in government, OPM proposes a set of priority questions for research and evaluation related to agency and workforce DEIA.

Associated priority questions and proposed approaches

1a. What are the key measures of DEIA performance? What are characteristics of agencies with high DEIA performance?

Potential methods.

  • Analysis of OPM Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey (FEVS) DEIA index to examine government and agency index score trends, as well as associations between index scores and agency characteristics such as size and location
  • Analysis to explore how federal employee DEIA demographics are related to agency characteristics
  • Review results of OPM’s agency DEIA assessments and analysis of relationships between assessment results and DEIA index scores and other DEIA measures

Data sources. OPM FEVS; OPM Enterprise Human Resources Integration (EHRI) database (demographic and payroll data); agency DEIA assessments

Estimated start and duration. FY 2022 (4 years)

1b. What specific practices, programs, or policies across the talent lifecycle promote increases in DEIA measures?

Potential methods.

  • Identification of key agency practices, programs or policies related to DEIA
  • Analysis of relationships between identified practices, programs, and policies and DEIA performance measures such as diversity, equal employment opportunity commission complaints, and pay gaps

Data sources. OPM FEVS; OPM Enterprise Human Resources Integration (EHRI) database (demographic and payroll data); agency DEIA assessments; EEOC complaints

Estimated start and duration. FY 2023 (3 years)

1c. Is advancing DEIA associated with federal agency performance measures such as productivity, employee engagement, and employee retention?

Potential methods.

  • Analysis of DEIA performance measures before and after a specific change in or institution of DEIA policies or programs to assess whether the change is associated with an improvement in DEIA measures
  • Evaluation (observational or experimental) of whether DEIA policies or programs are associated with improvements in agency performance measures such as employee engagement

Data sources. OPM FEVS; OPM Enterprise Human Resources Integration (EHRI) database (demographic and payroll data); agency DEIA assessments; agency policy and program descriptions; agency productivity measures

Estimated start and duration. FY 2023 (3 years)

1d. What strategies are effective in increasing diversity in the senior executive service (SES)?

Potential methods.

  • Analysis of relationships between agency policies and practices targeting the SES and SES diversity rates
  • Evaluation using observational or experimental designs of an agency’s SES diversity before and after a specific change in or institution of DEIA policies or programs

Data sources. OPM Enterprise Human Resources Integration (EHRI) database (demographic and payroll data); agency policy and program descriptions

Estimated start and duration. FY 2023 (2 years)

1e. Is pay equitable across demographic groups? Do strategies focused on increasing diversity in leadership reduce pay disparities?

Potential methods.

  • Analysis comparing demographic groups’ pay using statistical methods such as Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition
  • Analysis of the relationship between an agency’s leadership diversity and its pay, by demographic group

Data sources. OPM Enterprise Human Resources Integration (EHRI) database (demographic and payroll data); agency policy and program descriptions

Estimated start and duration. FY 2023 (2 years)

1f. What techniques are effective in increasing collection of demographic data?

Potential methods.

  • Evaluation of experiments to promote voluntary self-disclosure of demographic characteristics, such as changing the type or presentation of demographic questions in surveys and onboarding materials
  • Evaluation of the effect of any policies around collection of demographic data by examining trends in self-disclosure in official forms

Data sources. OPM Enterprise Human Resources Integration (EHRI) database (demographic and payroll data); OPM FEVS and other surveys

Estimated start and duration. FY 2022 (1 year)

Challenges and proposed solutions

For all priority questions, access to data with demographic identifiers is a challenge, as many demographic categories are not captured in employee records or surveys. OPM is actively working on proposals for additional data to collect and means of improving voluntary self-identification of these demographics, as per the last priority question.

For some of the priority questions, relevant agency data such as DEIA activities, productivity measures, and other key factors may not be available or easily accessible. As such, OPM will rely on existing DEIA assessment data or other data that agencies disclose, while acknowledging the limitations and ability to generalize to all agencies.

Additional questions of interest

  • What is the effect of contracting outreach programs on the percentage of contracts awarded to women-owned and minority-run businesses?
  • What is the effect of outreach to and partnerships with underserved communities on hiring practices and diversity of new hires?
  • What is the diversity of those hired via the competitive process as compared to those hired through direct hire?

What strategies and approaches are needed to position the federal government for the post-pandemic work environment and the future of work?

Strategic plan alignment

Goal 1: Position the federal government as a model employer, improving the government-wide satisfaction index score by 4 points

  • Objective 1.2: Develop a government-wide vision and strategy and implement policies and initiatives that embrace the future of work and position the federal government as a model employer with respect to hiring, talent development, competitive pay, benefits, and workplace flexibilities.

Background

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, the federal government has the opportunity to use lessons learned to determine how work will be performed moving forward and set the standard for how workplace flexibilities can be a strategic asset to help recruit, retain, and support employees in new ways, all while finding new and innovative ways for the government to deliver on its mission and to meet an evolving environment.

To prepare for the future of work, OPM proposes a set of priority questions for research and evaluation related to the needs of the future workforce and government.

Associated priority questions and proposed approaches

2a. What lessons were learned from COVID-19 that should inform future operations?

Potential methods.

  • Analysis of OPM FEVS future of work data
  • Review of agency pulse surveys and documentation of COVID-19 agency response
  • Qualitative research and/or surveys with networks such as the chief human capital officer (CHCO) community and the Future of Work working group

Data sources. Agency documents; in-depth interviews and/or focus group discussions with agency leaders and chief human capital officers (CHCOs); OPM FEVS; pulse surveys

Estimated start and duration. FY 2022 (1 year)

2b. What are the laws, policies, flexibilities, and tools that will be needed to meet the needs of the future workforce?

Potential methods.

  • Literature review to identify promising practices used in other federal agencies, state and local government, nonprofits, and the private sector
  • Qualitative research and/or strategic foresight exercises with networks such as the chief human capital officer (CHCO) community and the Future of Work working group
  • OPM FEVS and pulse surveys to assess employee needs and preferences for future work environments

Data sources. Literature; in-depth interviews and/or focus group discussions with agency leaders and chief human capital officers (CHCOs); strategic foresight exercises; OPM FEVS; pulse surveys

Estimated start and duration. FY 2022 (1 year)

2c. What is the relationship between current labor market skills and skills needed in the future? What gaps exist in meeting future mission needs/or labor market?

Potential methods.

  • Literature review to identify workforce trends and skills
  • Analysis of job postings, vacancy rates, job description, and applicant profiles to identify labor demand and gaps
  • Qualitative research and/or strategic foresight exercises with networks such as the chief human capital officer (CHCO) community and the Future of Work working group

Data sources. Literature; in-depth interviews and/or focus group discussions with agency leaders and chief human capital officers (CHCOs); strategic foresight exercises; USAJOBS and other hiring data

Estimated start and duration. FY 2023 (1 year)

Challenges and proposed solutions

One key challenge for all future of work studies is that the definition of future of work is broad, and the environment is rapidly changing, making it difficult to scope studies that will have meaningful implications for policies and programs. OPM will look to experts within and outside of government to help identify the most essential questions and data sources.

Additional questions of interest

What technology (including Artificial Intelligence and machine learning) innovations are effective for human capital processes? What strategies effectively promote non-traditional career paths (for example, phased retirement, flexibility in and out of government)?

How do telework, remote work, and hybrid environments affect agencies, employees, and customers? What strategies are effective for optimizing telework, remote work, and hybrid environments?

Strategic plan alignment

Goal 1: Position the federal government as a model employer, improving the government-wide satisfaction index score by 4 points

  • Objective 1.2: Develop a government-wide vision and strategy and implement policies and initiatives that embrace the future of work and position the federal government as a model employer with respect to hiring, talent development, competitive pay, benefits, and workplace flexibilities.

Background

Telework has become an important strategic management tool for the federal government, increasing employee morale, promoting work-life balance, generating costs savings to federal agencies, and facilitating continuity of agency operations[31] [32]. The 2020 OPM FEVS survey found that 59 percent of federal employees teleworked every day during the COVID-19 pandemic, compared to 3 percent who teleworked every day prior to the pandemic.

In the post-pandemic return to work, federal agencies are expected to expand use of regular telework and remote work for employees. Many agencies and teams will be operating in hybrid environments, with employees operating with a mix of on-site, telework, and remote workers.

The expansion of telework, remote work, and hybrid environments poses many research and evaluation questions for government about how to best understand and optimize these modalities.

Associated priority questions and proposed approaches

3a. What effect would the expansion of remote work have on hiring (for example, quality and diversity of the candidate pool and cost to agencies)?

Potential methods.

  • Analysis of applicant data to identify trends in applications to remote, telework, and non-telework jobs and to compare applicants to remote or telework available jobs with applicants to non-telework jobs in terms of demographic characteristics, geographic locality, and skill profiles
  • Analysis of measures of applicant quality (for example, assessment scores) and new hire satisfaction ratings by type of job
  • Evaluation of experiments with advertising remote or telework options to assess the effect on applicant volume and quality
  • Analysis of locality pay for remote positions to assess costs and savings to government of remote work

Data sources. USAJOBS applicant data; USAJOBS position data; hiring manager surveys; EHRI (demographic and payroll data)

Estimated start and duration. FY 2023 (2 years)

3b. What is the relationship between telework, remote work, and hybrid environments and employee engagement and retention? How do these effects vary by employee demographic?

Potential methods.

  • Analysis of OPM FEVS and pulse survey data to assess relationships between telework status and employee engagement factors
  • Evaluation of return-to-work experiments or observational studies comparing team and employee work modalities on engagement and retention, and how employee demographics affect these variables

Data sources. OPM FEVS; pulse surveys; EHRI (demographic and payroll data)

Estimated start and duration. FY 2022 (2 years)

3c. What is the effect of telework, remote work, and hybrid environments on team and agency productivity?

Potential methods.

  • Analysis of OPM FEVS and pulse survey data to assess relationships between telework status and perceived productivity
  • Evaluation of return-to-work experiments or observational studies comparing team and employee work modalities on agency productivity measures

Data sources. OPM FEVS; pulse surveys; EHRI (demographic and payroll data); agency productivity data

Estimated start and duration. FY 2022 (2 years)

Challenges and proposed solutions

For all telework studies, a key challenge is the quality of the current payroll data, which OPM is seeking to address. As noted for Learning Agenda Question 1, the lack of availability of certain types of demographic data reduces OPM’s ability to compare and draw conclusions; OPM is likewise working on promoting collection of additional demographic data. Finally, a challenge is that telework experiments are contingent upon agency interest and participation; OPM is exploring partnerships to conduct these experiments.

Additional questions of interest

  • What is the effect of telework, remote work, and hybrid environments on service delivery and customer experience?
  • Which job functions or job duties are best positioned for remote work and telework?
  • What barriers exist to making remote work and telework accessible to employees?
  • Do minimum allowed telework policies promote greater perceptions of fairness and equity in telework uptake across teams?
  • What effect would the expansion of remote work have on retention of diverse and underserved communities?
  • What effect does telework status have on career advancement?
  • What is the economic impact of increased telework on local communities?

What are the strengths and weaknesses of the current federal classification and pay systems? How could classification and pay systems be improved?

Strategic plan alignment

Goal 1: Position the federal government as a model employer, improving the government-wide satisfaction index score by 4 points

  • Objective 1.2: Develop a government-wide vision and strategy and implement policies and initiatives that embrace the future of work and position the federal government as a model employer with respect to hiring, talent development, competitive pay, benefits, and workplace flexibilities.

Background

The federal classification system is the federal government’s system for defining and organizing federal positions performing white collar work, primarily to assign rates of pay. Most white-collar employees (80 percent) work under the General Services (GS) pay plan, fitting into over 420 occupational series[33].

The federal classification system was developed in 1949 and OPM has had multiple inquiries to determine if the system can manage the modern updates to the federal government. OPM has made additions or modifications to the system over time by request of agencies to fit their needs. OPM also provides leadership on pay systems for civilian federal employees by developing and maintaining governmentwide regulations and policies on authorities such as General Schedule locality pay, the Federal Wage System, special rates, and pay for employees in non-foreign areas.

These research questions ask whether or not the current systems are working to meet agency needs and if there are alternatives to meet the needs of the federal workforce.  

Associated priority questions and proposed approaches

4a. What aspects of the classification and pay systems facilitate or hinder recruitment, retention, and promotion of diversity and equity?

Potential methods.

  • Literature review to identify critiques of and alternatives to the federal classification system and pay system
  • Review of qualitative or quantitative information from agencies not using the classification system to understand the performance of alternative systems
  • Review of job series for which current classification and pay is not comparable to other sectors

Data sources. Literature; in-depth interviews or focus groups with other agencies; classification systems administrative and structural data

Estimated start and duration. FY 2024 (1 year)

Challenges and proposed solutions

The main challenge is the complexity of the federal classification system, making assessing its functioning and alternatives challenging. OPM will leverage expertise within government to refine and scope questions related to the classification system.

Additional questions of interest

  • What has been the effect of broadbanding on employee recruitment, retention, and pay?
  • Does the classification system effectively identify/cover key skills (for example, machine learning, data visualization, or data analytics)?
  • Is there alignment between applicants’ self-identified skills and those included in the classifications?
  • What is the effect of the current classification and pay system on pay equity?

How can OPM design employee benefits and compensation to better meet the needs of federal employees?

Strategic plan alignment

Goal 1: Position the federal government as a model employer, improving the government-wide satisfaction index score by 4 points

  • Objective 1.2: Develop a government-wide vision and strategy and implement policies and initiatives that embrace the future of work and position the federal government as a model employer with respect to hiring, talent development, competitive pay, benefits, and workplace flexibilities.

Background

OPM administers key benefits for federal employees, including health insurance and retirement services. In recent years, organizations like the Government Accountability Office have highlighted a perceived disconnect between the current systems that provide federal pay and benefits and efforts to optimize workforce performance and attract and retain qualified applicants and employees[34]. According to the National Commission on Military, National, and Public Service, federal agencies could become more attractive employers if the federal government improved the flexibility of compensation packages to be more in-line with those provided in the private sector.[35]

Additionally, in January 2021, President Biden signed Executive Order 13985 On Advancing Racial Equity and Support for Underserved Communities through the federal government. This Executive Order required agencies to identify programs that may have existing equity gaps in their service delivery. OPM identified two potential areas of improvement related to benefits: Federal Employee Health Benefit (FEHB) plan selection and retirement readiness.

To promote better design of federal benefits, OPM proposes a set of priority questions for research and evaluation related to benefit delivery and equity.

Associated priority questions and proposed approaches

5a. How do federal employees perceive health plan options? What factors drive health plan decisions? Do these perceptions differ by demographic group?

Potential methods.

  • Literature review on health plan selection factors
  • federal Employee Benefits Survey (FEBS) to pose questions about plan selection
  • Qualitative research with federal employees and agency benefits officers to identify factors associated with plan selection

Data sources. Literature; FEBS; in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with federal employees and agency benefits officers

Estimated start and duration. FY 2022 (1 year)

5b. Will the new FEHB decision support tool improve use of and satisfaction with plan selection tools, ability to make plan selections, ability to find health plans that meet their needs, and enrollment behaviors?

Potential methods.

  • Evaluation of how launching an improved decision support tool affects use, user satisfaction, plan knowledge, and plan selection

Data sources. OPM plan selection website analytics; plan selection users survey data; health plan participation data; FEBS

Estimated start and duration. FY 2022 (3 years)

5c. What strategies are effective in increasing financial literacy for retirement?

Potential methods.

  • Literature review of financial literacy and retirement readiness interventions
  • Review of agency financial literacy strategies and any associated outcomes
  • Formative evaluation of pilot financial literacy programs to assess their effect on employee financial knowledge and behavioral intentions
  • Evaluation of experiments with TSP enrollment and contribution messaging to assess whether recipients improve their enrollment and contribution rates and select appropriate funds for their financial goals

Data sources. Agency training or educational session records; in-depth interviews or focus groups with agency benefits officers; surveys with educational session participants; TSP enrollment and election data; literature

Estimated start and duration. FY 2022 (3 years)

Partner. Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Board

Challenges and proposed solutions

A challenge for questions related to health plan benefits is that OPM does not have full health claims data for federal enrollees. OPM is continuing to expand the FEHB-related data that it collects.

OPM has a mandate to provide financial literacy information, but is not responsible for administering the TSP, so does not have direct access to TSP data. OPM will collaborate with the Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Board on any TSP-related programs, data sharing, and evaluations.

Additional questions of interest

  • How satisfied are federal employees with their benefits?
  • Does changing the presentation of benefits affect the volume, quality, or diversity of job applications?
  • Would adopting “total compensation packages” better attract and retain employees?
  • What are employer healthcare and insurance benefit trends? Are new offerings needed to be competitive with benefits offered in other sectors?
  • What are patterns of service use, costs, and risks for dual Medicare and FEHB enrollees?
  • What FEHB drug formulary design changes are needed to promote affordable drug prescription choices?
  • Does performance-based pay relate to job performance in the federal government?

Do government-wide performance management regulations and guidance meet the needs of managers and employees? What strategies are effective in improving performance management?

Strategic plan alignment

Goal 1: Position the federal government as a model employer, improving the government-wide satisfaction index score by 4 points

  • Objective 1.2: Develop a government-wide vision and strategy and implement policies and initiatives that embrace the future of work and position the federal government as a model employer with respect to hiring, talent development, competitive pay, benefits, and workplace flexibilities.

Background

The current Code of Federal Regulations governing federal agency performance management was introduced in 1995 and transformed the rigid approach to performance management into a more flexible process, giving agencies greater ability to customize the performance management process to meet their business needs. However, it is not clear how well the model applies today and effectively supports the future of work.

The following research and evaluation questions explore the current models for performance management and what strategies might improve agency performance management.

Associated priority questions and proposed approaches

6a. What strategies or resources are effective for managing employee performance and productivity for telework or remote settings?

Potential methods.

  • Literature review to assess best practices across federal government, state and local government, nonprofits, and private organizations for managing employees in telework or remote settings
  • Evaluation of guidance or training materials to identify effects on supervisors’ confidence to manage performance and/or employee satisfaction with performance management

Data sources. Literature; surveys with supervisors and employees

Estimated start and duration. FY 2022 (2 years)

Challenges and proposed solutions

The main challenge related to questions on the performance management system is agencies use differing performance management systems, thus it may be difficult to identify global solutions. Relatedly, not all performance management data is available or digitized, limiting the ability to draw conclusions about actual performance management practices and ratings. OPM will respond to these constraints by triangulating data where possible and acknowledging the limitations of its approaches.

Additional questions of interest

  • Do existing performance management programs accurately capture employee performance?
  • What is the prevalence of poor performance across government? 
  • What are the obstacles managers face when dealing with poor performance?
  • What strategies are effective for helping managers address poor performers?
  • What strategies are effective in improving supervisors’ provision of routine feedback to their direct reports? 
  • Are executives, managers, and supervisors appropriately executing performance management practices in their agencies and work units?
  • How has technology changed the performance management process in agencies? What policy changes are needed as the result of technology streamlining the process (for example, actions or processes that could be eliminated with the adoption of technology)?

What challenges or barriers exist in the hiring process? What are the effective actions to address these challenges or barriers?

Strategic plan alignment

Goal 1: Position the federal government as a model employer, improving the government-wide satisfaction index score by 4 points

  • Objective 1.3: Build the skills of the federal workforce through hiring and training. By FY 2026, increase the government-wide percentage of respondents who agree that their work unit has the job-relevant knowledge and skills necessary to accomplish organizational goals by 4 points.

Background

In a rapidly modernizing world, OPM has an opportunity to rebuild and empower the federal workforce for success. Since 2001, GAO has included strategic human capital management on its High-Risk List for the federal government. According to GAO, mission-critical skill gaps in the federal government pose a high risk to the nation because they impede the government from cost effectively serving the public and achieving results[36].

President Biden’s Executive Order 13985 On Advancing Racial Equity and Support for Underserved Communities through the federal government required agencies to identify programs that may have existing equity gaps in their service delivery. OPM identified a potential area of improvement in hiring: use of applicant flow data.

To increase the evidence base about recruitment and hiring, OPM proposes the following research and evaluation questions related to the federal hiring process and how it could be improved.

Associated priority questions and proposed approaches

7a. What aspects of federal employment are most attractive for recruitment, especially for key skills areas?

Potential methods.

  • Analysis of USAJOBS postings to assess characteristics of postings that attract the most applicants and the most applicants rated as qualified
  • Analysis of trends in search results and job application behaviors by specific agency or job series characteristics
  • Qualitative research and/or surveys with applicants to understand their perspectives and key interests regarding careers and federal careers specifically

Data sources. USAJOBS applicant data; USAJOBS position data; in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and/or surveys with job applicants

Estimated start and duration. FY 2023 (1 year)

7b. What policies and programs are effective in increasing early career talent into government?

Potential methods.

  • Review of literature, reports, and administrative data on existing government internship programs and use of intern hiring mechanisms
  • Evaluation of new OPM guidance or legislation on internships to assess the effect of these initiatives on the number of internship programs and interns, the conversion rate into government following internships, and intern career trajectories

Data sources. Literature; government reports; administrative data for internship programs; EHRI (demographic and payroll data)

Estimated start and duration. FY 2024 (2 years)

7c. What strategies are effective in increasing use of applicant flow data? Does increased use of applicant flow data result in more diversity in hiring?

Potential methods.

  • Evaluation of strategies to increase access to applicant flow data types and to better capacitate HR personnel to use this data to identify stages in the hiring process where diverse applicants do not move forward to identify if they result in increased rates of accessing data, knowledge and skills for applicant flow data use, and improvements in diverse applicants succeeding at various stages of the hiring process

Data sources. USAJOBS applicant flow data; surveys with agency HR personnel; EHRI (demographic and payroll data)

Estimated start and duration. FY 2023 (2 years)

7d. What effect does direct hire have on compliance with merit principles, diversity of hires, and hiring metrics such as time-to-hire?

Potential methods.

  • Collect hiring data from agencies using direct hire authorities outside of USAJOBS
  • Compare personnel data with talent acquisition system data to understand the percentage of hires coming from direct hire as opposed to other systems and the demographic makeup of these hires

Data sources. Agency reports; USAJOBS data; EHRI (demographic data)

Estimated start and duration. FY 2023 (2 years)

7e. Which occupational series have the greatest demand and need for hiring assistance?

Potential methods.

  • Conduct agency needs assessments via a questionnaire and one-on-one meetings with agencies

Data sources. Needs assessment questionnaire; agency meetings

Estimated start and duration. FY 2022 (1 year)

Challenges and proposed solutions

USAJOBS does not cover all federal agencies, nor does it capture data regarding direct hires, limiting the completeness and generalizability of the data. OPM will address this challenge by collecting additional data as needed and acknowledging the existing limitations in the design and interpretation of research.

Additional questions of interest

  • What hiring authorities are no longer being used and should eliminated? What changes are needed to streamline existing hiring authorities?
  • What is the effect of veterans’ preference on hiring?
  • What is the effect of expansion of recruitment incentives on hiring and retention?
  • What strategies are effective in encouraging hiring managers to engage in active recruitment?
  • What are lessons learned from providing hiring flexibilities and volunteer placements with Health and Human Services to address the surge in unaccompanied minors?

What strategies are effective in encouraging adoption of rigorous hiring assessments within all pay systems?

Strategic plan alignment

Goal 1: Position the federal government as a model employer, improving the government-wide satisfaction index score by 4 points

  • Objective 1.3: Build the skills of the federal workforce through hiring and training. By FY 2026, increase the government-wide percentage of respondents who agree that their work unit has the job-relevant knowledge and skills necessary to accomplish organizational goals by 4 points.

Background

Hiring assessments are an effective means for narrowing down large applicant pools and eliminating applicants who are not qualified for a position. Not all assessments are equally valid. Meta-analytic research suggests that certain types of hiring assessments are better at predicting performance on the job than others. For example, a structured interview is more predictive than an unstructured interview. Assessments such as cognitive ability tests, situational judgment tests, work samples, and biodata instruments are more predictive of job performance than self-report training and experience questionnaires[37].

In July 2020, Executive Order 13932 Modernizing and Reforming the Assessment and Hiring of Federal Job Candidates called on OPM to work with agencies to move toward more rigorous candidate assessments, rather than solely relying on candidates’ educational attainment or self-evaluations of stated abilities. The Executive Order also specified that agencies should continually evaluate the effectiveness of their assessment strategies.

To contribute to that continuous evaluation of hiring assessments, OPM proposes the following research and evaluation questions.

Associated priority questions and proposed approaches

8a. What effect do assessments have on time-to-hire, applicant quality, and other hiring considerations?

Potential methods.

  • Analysis of USAHIRE data to examine associations between use of assessments, including specific types of assessments or for specific job series, and hiring measures
  • Analysis of USAHIRE data to compare performance on various hiring assessments between different applicant demographic groups

Data sources. USAHIRE data; hiring manager surveys

Estimated start and duration. FY 2023 (1 year)

Challenges and proposed solutions

USAHIRE does not cover all federal agencies, limiting the completeness and generalizability of the data; OPM will provide its findings with this caveat. Assessments also vary in terms of rigor and deployment, which will be a key factor in interpreting and presenting the findings of any broader analyses.

Additional questions of interest

  • What is the current rate of adoption of hiring assessments by pay level, agency, and job type?
  • What strategies or communications to agencies are effective in getting agencies to adopt rigorous assessments?
  • What capacity building strategies are effective in training agencies to deploy assessments?

What strategies are effective for increasing and maintaining the capacity of the Federal workforce to meet critical agency needs?

Strategic plan alignment

Goal 1: Position the federal government as a model employer, improving the government-wide satisfaction index score by 4 points

  • Objective 1.3: Build the skills of the federal workforce through hiring and training. By FY 2026, increase the government-wide percentage of respondents who agree that their work unit has the job-relevant knowledge and skills necessary to accomplish organizational goals by 4 points.

Background

One of OPM’s key functions is to provide guidance and assistance with building and maintaining the skills of the federal workforce. With the expansion of new technology and automation within government, federal employees will need new skills to meet evolving workforce needs[38]. OPM is enabling agencies to reskill and upskill segments of the workforce through data analytics and interactive tools. OPM’s Reskilling Toolkit contains information, guidance, tips, and resources on how to reskill and/or upskill employees impacted by major workforce changes.

OPM also helps federal employees advance their careers and prepare to lead through oversight of interagency rotation programs and its leadership training institute. It further assists other federal agencies with preparing for evolving workforce needs, monitoring SES retention, and succession planning.

To better understand the need for building and maintaining workforce skills, OPM proposes the following research and evaluation questions.

Associated priority questions and proposed approaches

9a. Which occupational series have the greatest need for upskilling?

Potential methods.

  • Review of occupational series likely to be affected by new technology or automation
  • Review of agency upskilling initiatives to date
  • Survey with CHCOs or other HR professionals

Data sources. Classification data; agency training records; surveys

Estimated start and duration. FY 2023 (1 year)

Challenges and proposed solutions

As upskilling efforts are not yet widespread, data may not be available to understand which occupational series are best suited for these efforts. OPM will thus focus on specific job series and agencies.

Additional questions of interest

  • What is the efficacy of upskilling efforts?
  • How effective are career rotations, mentorship, and similar programs for professional development?
  • What factors are associated with retention of senior executives?
  • What factors are associated with federal employees’ departure from their positions? From the federal government?
  • To what extent have agencies adopted OPM prescribed strategies to strengthen the SES?
  • Do agencies have formal succession and workforce planning policies and processes? What succession and workforce planning strategies are effective in promoting continuity of operations and well-prepared future leaders?
  • What strategies are effective in increasing the skills of the HR workforce for delivering people management leadership?

How can OPM improve internal coordination and service delivery across its functions?

Strategic plan alignment

Goal 2: Transform OPM’s organizational capacity and capability to better serve as the leader in federal human capital management

  • Objective 2.1: Build the skills of the OPM workforce and attract skilled talent. By FY 2026, increase the percentage of OPM employees who agree that their work unit has the job-relevant knowledge and skills necessary to accomplish organizational goals by 3 percentage points.
  • Objective 2.2: Improve OPM’s relationships and standing as the human capital management thought leader. By FY 2026, increase the percent of CHCOs who strongly agree that OPM treats them as a strategic partner by 23 percentage points.
  • Objective 2.3: Improve OPM’s program efficacy through comprehensive risk management and contract monitoring across the agency. By FY 2026, achieve the OMB-set target for the percentage of spending under category management.
  • Objective 2.4: Establish a sustainable funding and staffing model for OPM that better allows the agency to meet its mission. By FY 2026, increase the percentage of OPM managers who indicate that they have sufficient resources to get their jobs done by 4 percentage points.
  • Objective 2.5: Modernize OPM IT by establishing an enterprise-wide approach, eliminating fragmentation, and aligning IT investments with core mission requirements. By FY 2026, increase the percentage of software projects implementing adequate incremental development to 95 percent.
  • Objective 2.6: Promote a positive organizational culture where leadership drives an enterprise mindset, lives the OPM values, and supports employee engagement and professional growth. By FY 2026, increase OPM’s Leaders Lead Score by 3 points.

Background

OPM has identified major organizational capacity and capability challenges that it must address in order to meet its mission and better serve customers. The strategic planning process identified OPM’s strengths in subject matter expertise and commitment to mission, but continued issues related to staff capacity, legacy IT, siloed departments, and relationships and standing with external entities. The focus of strategic plan goal two is strengthening OPM’s internal capacity and processes to deliver its policies, programs, and services.

OPM has thus identified questions related to its internal functioning that it would like to answer to become a more efficient and effective organization.

Associated priority questions and proposed approaches

10a. What strategies are effective in promoting an internal culture of data-driven decision-making?

Potential methods.

  • Literature review of promising practices related to organizational and cultural change
  • Collection of best practices for data culture change from other agencies
  • Pulse surveys of OPM employees to assess perceptions of data practices
  • Evaluation of trainings related to analytic skills and/or use of data to identify changes in knowledge and behavior around data use

Data sources. Literature; agency documents; pulse surveys; pre- and post-training surveys

Estimated start and duration. FY 2022 (1 year)

Challenges and proposed solutions

Conducting evaluations and pulse surveys is dependent on leadership support for such initiatives. OPM will continue to work with leaders to align this learning agenda question with agency priorities and initiatives linked to the strategic plan.

Additional questions of interest

  • What siloes currently exist in OPM’s work?
  • What strategies would be effective in promoting collaboration and teamwork at OPM?
  • To what extent is OPM proactive in its processes? What strategies are effective in increasing OPM's proactivity?
  • What is the effect of centralizing OPM hiring processes on OPM hiring efficiencies and talent gaps?
  • What are the main service and guidance needs of OPM’s agency customers?
  • What structure(s) have other agencies adopted for a centralized customer experience function?
  • To what extent are OPM’s leaders embodying OPM’s values?

To what extent are OPM’s High Impact Service Providers meeting customer needs? What strategies are effective for improving customer service and satisfaction?

Strategic plan alignment

Goal 3: Create a human-centered customer experience by putting the needs of OPM’s customers at the center of OPM’s workforce services, policy, and oversight, increasing OPM’s customer satisfaction index score for targeted services to 4.3 out of 5

  • Objective 3.1: Enhance the Retirement Services customer experience by providing timely, accurate, and responsive service that addresses the diverse needs of OPM’s customers. By FY 2026, improve the customer satisfaction score to 4.2 out of 5.
  • Objective 3.2: Create a personalized USAJOBS experience to help applicants find relevant opportunities. By FY 2026, improve applicant satisfaction to 4.1 out of 5 for the desktop platform and to 4.5 out of 5 for the mobile platform.

Background

OPM provides customer service to the public and federal employees through two high impact service providers: retirement services and USAJOBS.

OPM processes more than 100,000 new retirement claims each year while also managing any changes to the federal retirement accounts for nearly 2.6 million existing annuitants and survivors. OPM’s Retirement Services answers approximately 1.8 million phone calls each year. OPM’s Retirement Services faces issues in delivering its services, including legacy contact center infrastructure and manual case processing, leading to backlogs and delays in providing services and low customer satisfaction[39].

OPM’s USAJOBS – the federal government’s official employment site and source for federal job announcements – serves as the “front door” to the federal hiring process for over 500 federal organizations. In FY 2019, agencies posted more than 300,000 job announcements and more than 17 million applicants used the USAJOBS platform. Applicants have expressed frustration over the lack of transparency in the federal hiring process and confusion over the jobs for which they are eligible and qualified.[40] Hiring managers have expressed challenges finding the best candidates and lack data to make informed decisions.[41]

To strengthen OPM’s service delivery and customer experience, OPM proposes to address the following questions.

Associated priority questions and proposed approaches

11a. What effect will personalizing the USAJOBS interface have on applicant experience, hiring manager experience, and hiring measures?

Potential methods.

  • Analysis of trends in uptake of personalized features, such as skills matching technology
  • Evaluation of personalized features to assess changes in hiring measures (for example, time-to-hire and hiring manager satisfaction) before and after launch of a feature

Data sources. USAJOBS applicant data; USAJOBS feature data; applicant satisfaction surveys; hiring manager satisfaction surveys

Estimated start and duration. FY 2023 (3 years)

11b. What effect will online retirement application processes have on service delivery and customer experience? Does this experience differ by customer demographic?

Potential methods.

  • Evaluation of online application, comparing case completeness, processing time, and customer satisfaction before and after the launch of specific automated or online features

Data sources. OPM retirement case audits; case processing data; customer experience surveys

Estimated start and duration. FY 2024 (2 years)

11c. What is the customer experience for annuitants using Services Online? What percentage are using Services Online? What usability challenges exist? Does this experience differ by customer demographic?

Potential methods.

  • Analysis of usage of Services Online, including most common services used
  • Analysis of call center data regarding requests for Services Online assistance
  • Analysis of customer experience surveys for Services Online users
  • Qualitative feedback from Services Online users

Data sources. OPM services online user data; call center data; customer experience surveys

Estimated start and duration. FY 2022 (2 years)

Challenges and proposed solutions

USAJOBS does not cover all federal agencies, and not all applicants may choose to use existing features, limiting the completeness and generalizability of the data. For both HISPs, customer experience survey response rates are low, and respondent demographics are not currently available. OPM will seek ways to strengthen its customer service surveys to include additional service categories and demographics and will interpret its findings with caution.

Additional questions of interest

  • How do service quality and satisfaction differ by customer segments?
  • What factors are related to retiree and annuitant satisfaction?
  • What is the relationship between length of time for claims processing and satisfaction?
  • What effect will call center operations changes have on customer satisfaction?

What strategies are effective in improving oversight efficiency and agency adherence to HR laws and policy guidance?

Strategic plan alignment

Goal 4: Provide innovative and data-driven solutions to enable agencies to meet their missions, increasing the percentage of users throughout government who agree that OPM offered innovative solutions while providing services or guidance by 4 points

Objective 4.2: Increase focus on government-wide policy work by shifting more low-risk delegations of authorities to agencies.

Background

OPM’s policy and oversight roles include conducting hundreds of transactional approval and adjudicative activities such as approving individual dual compensation waiver requests, approving individual requests for voluntary retirement early authority or voluntary separation incentive payments, approving veterans pass over requests, and reviewing individual job grading appeals. Although these requests for approval and adjudication are important to ensure adherence to law, agencies have expressed a need for greater decision-making authority. OPM intends to delegate, to the maximum extent possible, decision-making authorities to agencies, and conduct cyclical reviews to verify that appropriate actions were taken.

OPM includes questions related to OPM’s policy and oversight functions, to prepare for increased delegation and to understand the effect of delegations on OPM, agencies, and the workforce.

Associated priority questions and proposed approaches

12a. Which flexibilities and delegations are most appropriate to extend to agencies?

Potential methods.

  • Review of existing flexibilities and delegations and previous audit findings
  • Qualitative research with CHCOs and other stakeholders to understand their perspectives on appropriate authorities to delegate

Data sources. Agency audit findings; in-depth interviews and/or focus group discussions with CHCOs and other stakeholders

Estimated start and duration. FY 2022 (1 year)

12b. What is the relationship between delegated examining certification and oversight findings?

Potential methods.

  • Analysis of audit data to assess the relationship between agency certification status and agency adherence to HR laws and guidance

Data sources. Agency audit findings; DE certification training records

Estimated start and duration. FY 2022 (1 year)

Challenges and proposed solutions

Not all agencies receive oversight, or participate in delegated examining, limiting the generalizability of the data to other agencies. OPM will thus qualify its findings as relevant to the agencies for which data is available.

Additional questions of interest

  • What is the effect of increased delegations and flexibilities on the oversight process and on agency oversight findings?

Are OPM’s human capital policies and guidance achieving their intended outcomes?

Strategic plan alignment

Goal 4: Provide innovative and data-driven solutions to enable agencies to meet their missions, increasing the percentage of users throughout government who agree that OPM offered innovative solutions while providing services or guidance by 4 points

  • Objective 4.4: Improve OPM’s ability to provide strategic human capital management leadership to agencies through expansion of innovation, pilots, and identification of leading practices across government. By FY 2026, provide federal agencies with 25 leading practices.
  • Objective 4.5: Revamp OPM’s policy-making approach to be proactive, timely, systematic, and inclusive. By FY 2026, increase the percent of CHCOs who agree that OPM’s policy approach is responsive to agency needs by 8 percentage points.

Background

OPM interprets and enforces governing law and provides policy direction and leadership in designing, developing, and promulgating government-wide human capital systems, programs, and policies that support the current and emerging needs of federal agencies. In addition, the agency provides technical support and guidance to agencies on the full range of human capital management policies and practices. OPM plans to shift how it develops policy, from a more reactive to a more proactive, timely, systematic, and inclusive approach.

OPM is seeking to better understand both the process of policy and guidance development and the effects of its policy and guidance on the federal workforce. OPM has conducted few evaluations of whether its policies and guidance are achieving their intended outcomes.

OPM is thus proposing a broad question related to process and outcome evaluations of policies and guidance and will identify policies and guidance to evaluate in accordance with evolving priorities.

Associated priority questions and proposed approaches

13a. How has the federal Employee Paid Leave Act affected leave use, engagement, retention, career advancement, and well-being of federal employees?

Potential methods.

  • Analysis of payroll data to determine how employee leave taking changed after the implementation of FEPLA, including demographics of leave takers and leave duration
  • Analysis of payroll and employee data to identify whether FEPLA is associated with employee retention, turnover, promotions, performance ratings, and salary
  • Qualitative research with employees who have used FEPLA to understand their decisions about taking leave and the effect of the leave on their health, career, and well-being
  • Surveys with federal employees regarding their perceptions of FEPLA and paid leave programs

Data sources. EHRI (demographic and payroll data); FEBS; in-depth interviews and/or focus groups with federal employees

Estimated start and duration. FY 2022 (2 years)

Partner. Department of Labor

Challenges and proposed solutions

FEPLA is a new policy and robust data may not be available in the short-term. As such, OPM will focus on answering initial questions and will lay the groundwork for future, longer-term studies. Payroll data is not complete and has historically had data quality issues; OPM is working to proactively improve payroll data, with a focus on improving leave-related data.

Additional questions of interest

  • What factors are associated with adoption of new human capital policies and guidance?
  • What is the effect of the marijuana policies on recruitment and clearance processes?

Footnote 29

Section 101 of the Evidence Act. 5 U.S.C. §312(a).

Footnote 30

OMB Memo M19-23

Footnote 31

Lister, K. (2020). Lessons Learned from Remote Working During COVID-19. Testimony before the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, S.Hrg. 116-264

Footnote 32

United States Office of Personnel Management. (2020). Status of telework in the federal government: Report to Congress fiscal year 2019.

Footnote 33

Introduction to the Position Classification Standards, TS-134, Revised August 2009

Footnote 34

Government Accountability Office. (2019). Federal Workforce: Talent Management Strategies to Help Agencies Better Compete in a tight Labor Market. Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Government Operations, Committee on Oversight and Reform, House of Representatives. (GAO-19-723T). Washington, DC.

Footnote 35

National Commission on Military, National, and Public Service (2020). Inspired to Serve: The Final Report of the National Commission on Military, National, and Public Service. March 2020. Washington, DC.

Footnote 36

Government Accountability Office (2021). HIGH-RISK SERIES: Dedicated Leadership Needed to Address Limited Progress in Most High-Risk Areas (GAO-21-119SP). March 2021.

Footnote 37

Morris, S. B., Daisley, R. L., Wheeler, M., & Boyer, P. (2015). A meta-analysis of the relationship between individual assessments and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(1), 5–20.

Footnote 38

Partnership for Public Service. (2019). Looking Inward for Talent: Retraining Employees for Tomorrow’s Jobs.

Footnote 39

Government Accountability Office. (2018). Federal Retirement: OPM Actions Needed to Improve Application Processing Times (GAO-19-217). Washington, DC.

Footnote 40

Government Accountability Office. (2020). USAJOBS WEBSITE: OPM Has Taken Actions to Assess and Enhance the User Experience (GAO-21-31).

Footnote 41

Partnership for Public Service. (2020). A Time for Talent: Improving Federal Recruiting and Hiring.