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Data Source Definitions and Acknowledgments

Employment and Trends

Data Source, Definitions, and Acknowledgements


Agencies report employment data either as of (1) the last day of the month, or (2) the last day of the pay period closest to the end of the month. However at the end of the fiscal year, agencies report on the last day of the month to meet the Office of Management and Budget's reporting requirements. Payroll and Turnover data are reported as of the beginning and through the end of the report period.

Statistics in this report are based on the Monthly Report of Federal Civilian Employment (Stan-dard Form 113A). Each department and agency of the Federal Government, except the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, National Imagery and Mapping Agency, and the Defense Intelligence Agency, submit statistical data. The Office of Personnel Manage- ment does not collect personnel data from any State or local government including the District of Columbia government. Within this report, employment data are reported under the following categories:

Work Schedules

Full time employees - those employees who are regularly scheduled to work the number of hours and days required by the administrative work- week for their employment group or class.

Part time employees - those employees who are regularly employed on a prearranged scheduled tour of duty that is less than the specified hours or days of work for full time employees in the same group or class.

Intermittent employees - those employees who are employed on an irregular or occasional basis, with hours or days of work not on a prearranged schedule, and with compensation only for the time actually employed or for services actually rendered.


Permanent position - one which has been established without time limit, or for a period of a year or more, or which, in any event, has been occupied for a year or more (regardless of the intent when it was established).

Temporary position - one that has been established for a limited period of less than a year and which has not been occupied for more than a year.

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Competitive Service

The competitive service consists of all civil service positions in the Executive Branch except: (a) positions that are specifically excepted from the competitive service by or under statute; (b) positions to which appointments are made by nomination for confirmation by the Senate, unless the Senate otherwise directs, and (c) positions in the Senior Executive Service. The competitive service also includes civil service positions outside the Executive Branch that are specifically included in the competitive service by statute.

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Excepted Service and Senior Executive Service

Title IV of the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 created the Senior Executive Service (SES). Personnel in the Executive Branch in managerial positions classifiable above GS 15 of the General Schedule (GS) and not designated above level IV of the Executive Schedule, or their equivalents, are in the SES. Exceptions include positions in Government corporations, intelligence agencies, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and administrative law judges. The Foreign Service Act of 1980 created a Senior Foreign Service, effective February 15, 1981, which parallels the Senior Executive Service in most respects. Federal employees who are not in the competitive service or SES are in the excepted service. Examples of excepted positions include the entire U.S. Postal Service and veterans serving under Veterans Readjustment Act Appointments, positions for which it is not practical to hold competitive examinations such as teachers in dependents' schools overseas and attorneys, positions of a policy determining and confidential nature, and most positions in the Legislative and Judicial Branches. Foreign nationals holding jobs overseas are excepted by Executive Order.

Several tables in this report show the number of Federal civilian employees in the competitive service and in the excepted service. Senior Executive Service employment is included with the excepted service in Employment and Trends since both excepted service and Senior Executive Service data are reported together on the 113A monthly report.

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Permanent Appointments - include employees who are (1) in the competitive service who hold career appointments and who either have com-pleted probation or are not required to serve probation; (2) in the competitive service who hold career conditional appointments, or who hold career appointments and are serving pro-bation; (3) in the excepted service whose ap-pointments carry no restrictions such as con-ditional, indefinite, specific time limitations, or trial periods; (4) in the excepted service who are serving trial periods or whose tenure is equiv-alent to career conditional tenure in the com-petitive service; and (5) in the Senior Executive Service (SES) who are not serving under "limited term and limited emergency" appointments.

Temporary and Indefinite Appointments - include all other employees who do not fall within any of the classifications described under Permanent Appointments.

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Citizens - direct hire employees who owe allegiance to the United States by birth or naturalization regardless of their place of permanent residence or duty station.

Non Citizens - Territories - direct hire employ-ees who are citizens of another country and whose duty station is in the Territories of the United States (American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands (except Ryukyu Islands and Swan Islands), Navassa Islands, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and Wake Island).

Non Citizens - Foreign Countries - (commonly referred to as "foreign nationals") direct hire employees who are citizens of another country and whose duty station is not the United States or its Territories.

Note: Federal civilian employees (citizens and non citizens) are direct hire employees, i.e., they are under agreement or contract with the U.S. Government. Indirect hires (persons who, under agreement or contract with foreign governments, provide personal services to the U.S. Government) are not Federal civilian employees, and are not included in any employment figures in the Employment and Trends.

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Payroll is the sum of all wages, salaries and lump sum payments earned by Federal civilian employees. Wages and salaries include gross base pay, overtime, night differential, and holiday pay. Lump sum payments are monies paid for annual leave to employees who have separated from the Federal Government. Payroll data are collected and presented in thousands of dollars.

Please note that, while monthly employment data reflect on board "head count" employment as of the end of the report period, payroll data reflect salary and wages for all employees who worked during the period, whether or not they were on board at the end of the month. Moreover, "monthly" payroll data could cover from 20 to 30 workdays depending on the report cycle. Hence, payroll data is not tied directly to employment figures. Therefore, average salaries, for example, cannot be calculated based on these monthly data.

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Accessions and Separations

Accessions include appointments from civil service registers which are career or career-conditional appointments, excepted appointments, appointments to the Senior Executive Service, temporary appointments from registers, temporary appointments pending the establishment of registers, reappointments, reinstatements, restorations and returns to duty, and transfers. Separations include quits, discharges, terminations, reductions in force, removals, transfers, extended leave without pay, suspensions, furloughs, deaths, and retirements. Turnover data reflect employees in all work schedules (full time, part time, and intermittent) and all tenures (permanent and temporary and indefinite appointments). In the U.S. Postal Service, turnover data include all categories of Postal employment, both career and non career; non career types include temporaries, casuals, and replacements for employees on leave. The report presents turnover data for the following categories:

Transfers - employees who, without a break in service of one full workday, change from a position in one agency to a position in another agency, including mass transfers of employees between agencies as a result of transfer of functions.

New Hires - new appointments of individuals who currently are not Federal civilian employees to positions in the competitive service, excepted service, and Senior Executive Service, including reinstatements based on prior service.

Restorations, Returns to Duty - includes employees who exercise reemployment rights following military service and those returning to duty following a reduction in force, from sus-pension or leave without pay that was scheduled to exceed 30 calendar days, from seasonal furlough, or pending action on reopening appeal.

Quits - voluntary resignations by employees or separations by agency if employee declines new assignment (decision not to accept a new job); abandons position (left the job); joins military; or fails to return from military furlough.

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This report was prepared under the direction of Dr. Gary Lukowski, Manager, Data Analysis Group. The manager for this report was Theresa Pinkney. We gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Carol Goodroe. Additional information may be obtained from the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Room 2449, Theodore Roosevelt Building, 1900 E Street, NW., Washington, DC 20415-6000; Phone: 202-606-2942; FAX: 202-606-1719; email:

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