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Reference Materials



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Annual Performance Plan (APP)
Under the Government Performance and Results Act Modernization Act of 2010 (GPRA MA) the APP defines the level of performance to be achieved during the year in which the plan is submitted and the next fiscal year. The APP may be used to structure the agency’s budget submission or be a separate document that accompanies the agency’s budget submission. An Annual Performance Plan must cover each program activity of the agency set forth in the budget.
Annual Performance Report (APR)
A report on the agency performance that provides information on the agency's progress achieving the goals and objectives described in the agency’s Strategic Plan and Annual Performance Plan, including progress on the Agency Priority Goals. The report is delivered to Congress every February with an agency’s Congressional Budget Justification or, alternatively, the APR may be delivered as a performance section of the Performance and Accountability Report that is published by agencies in November.
Augmented Work
The pairing of humans, machines, and/or artificial intelligence wherein the machine takes on greater responsibility of “doing” the work and the human manages and analyzes the work done by the machine. The state where a human-machine team is able to accomplish more than a human could without help.
Automation is the creation of technology and its application in order to control and monitor the production and delivery of various goods and services. It performs tasks that were previously performed by humans1.

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Difficulty in a job or undertaking. What about the scenario makes your agency’s job difficult or impossible to do? What about the scenario disadvantages your agency and their respective mission set?
Chief Human Capital Officer (CHCO)
The agency’s senior leader whose primary duty is to: (1) Advise and assist the head of the agency and other agency officials in carrying out the agency’s responsibilities for selecting, developing, training, and managing a high-quality productive workforce in accordance with merit system principles; and (2) Implement the rules and regulations of the President, the Office of Personnel Management (OPM), and the laws governing the civil service within the agency.
CHCO Agency
An Executive agency, as defined by 5 U.S.C. 105, which is required by 5 U.S.C. 1401 and 31 U.S.C. 901(b)(1) to appoint a CHCO.

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Disruptive Event
An occurrence that derails a previously predicted trajectory of social, political, and technological developments and values.

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The level of achievement of program goals and the results intended (as defined in strategic plans and in legislation). Examples include the percentage of trainees employed one year after completing job training, the rate of compliance in filing tax returns, and the percentage of customers/employees satisfied in relation to relevant indices.
The ratio of the outcome or output to the input of any program; the degree to which programs are executed or activities are implemented to achieve results while avoiding wasted resources, effort, time, and/or money.
Individual, systematic studies to assess how well an entire program or some specific strategy or an aspect of a program is working to achieve intended results or outcomes. Evaluations may address questions related to the overall performance of the program, the implementation of the program, the effectiveness of program strategies, or factors that relate to variability in effectiveness of the program or strategies. Evaluations can also examine questions related to measurement of progress, such as the reliability of performance data, identifying appropriate goals or targets for performance, and understanding the contextual factors surrounding a program.

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Federal Cybersecurity Workforce Assessment Act
Act signed on December 18, 2015, which requires various actions and specific timelines for assigning codes to identify the Federal cybersecurity workforce and assessing the workforce’s critical needs.
Federal Workforce Priorities Report (FWPR)
A strategic human capital report, published by OPM by the first Monday in February of any year in which the term of the President commences. OPM may extend the date of publication if needed. The report communicates key Governmentwide human capital priorities and suggested strategies. The report also informs agency strategic and human capital planning.
Focus Areas
Driven by the acceleration of connectivity and cognitive technology, the nature of work is changing. As AI systems, robotics, and cognitive tools grow in sophistication, almost every job is being reinvented, creating what many call the “augmented workforce.” As this trend gathers speed, organizations must reconsider how they design jobs, organize work, and plan for future growth.

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A statement of the result or achievement toward which effort is directed. Goals can be long or short-term and may be expressed specifically or broadly. Progress against goals should be monitored using a suite of supporting indicators.
Government Performance and Results Act Modernization Act of 2010 (GPRA MA)
The law that requires agencies to set strategic goals, measure performance, and report on the degree to which goals are met. The GPRA Modernization Act requires agencies to set long-term goals and objectives as well as specific, near-term performance goals.

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A strategic human capital performance evaluation process that identifies, measures, and analyzes human capital data to inform the impact of an agency’s human capital management on organizational results with the intent to improve human capital outcomes. HRstat, which is a quarterly review process, is a component of any agency’s strategic planning and alignment and evaluation systems that are part of the Human Capital Framework.
Human Capital Strategy

A process that leverages information gleaned from an organization’s workforce planning process to develop a process that implements an integrated process that implements the systems of the Human Capital Framework (HCF). The systems will be implemented in coordination with human capital policies, programs, and initiatives to substantiate human capitals contributions to mission accomplishment. Additionally, the strategy determines a path that ensures that work functions and processes—(to include the development/administration of Human Resource programs and policies, resource identification/allocation, training, and human resource Information Technology systems) – work together to ensure the management of a thriving workforce.

The strategy must rely upon the principles of the Strategic Planning and Alignment system of the HCF to ensure that the principles of Foresight are used to identify the current and future workforce skills needed. The results of the process must be integrated into the overall strategy to ensure that a focus is to not only allow for the mitigation of any risks associated with causing

Human Capital Evaluation Framework
Framework underlies the three human capital evaluation mechanisms (i.e., HRstat, Audits, and Human Capital Reviews) to create a central evaluation framework that integrates the outcomes from each to provide OPM and agencies with an understanding of how human capital policies and programs are supporting missions.
Human Capital Framework (HCF)
Provides comprehensive guidance on the principles of strategic human capital management in the Federal Government. The framework provides direction on human capital planning, implementation, and evaluation in the Federal environment.
Human Capital Operating Plan (HCOP)
An agency’s human capital implementation document, which describes how an agency will execute the human capital elements stated within Agency Strategic Plan and Annual Performance Plan (APP). Program specific workforce investments and strategies (e.g., hiring, closing skill gaps, etc.) should be incorporated into the APPs as appropriate. The HCOP should clearly execute each of the four systems of the HCF. The HCOP should align with the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) Modernization Act of 2010, annual performance plans and timelines.
Human Capital Review (HCR)
OPM’s annual, evidence-based review of an agency’s design and implementation of its HCOP, independent audit, and HRstat programs to support mission accomplishment and human capital outcomes.

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Independent Audit Program
A component of an agency’s evaluation system designed to review all human capital management systems and select human resources transactions to ensure efficiency, effectiveness, and legal and regulatory compliance.
Intelligent Automation
Combines RPA technology with other AI technologies and surrounds them with an understanding of processes and challenges. IA empowers agencies to automate more complex business rules and decision that require added judgment2.

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Metrics (or measures, indicators)
A value that indicates the state or level of quality of that which is being measured. Metrics are measurements, either qualitative or quantitative, that provide a basis for evaluating effectiveness and efficiency of performance.
Mission-Critical Occupations (MCOs)
Occupations agencies consider core to carrying out their missions. Such occupations usually reflect the primary mission of the organization without which mission-critical work cannot be completed.

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National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education (NICE)
Led by the National Institute of Standards and Technology in the Department of Commerce, NICE is a partnership between Government, academia, and the private sector focused on cybersecurity education, training, and workforce development.
NICE Cybersecurity Workforce Framework (NICE Framework)
National resource that categorizes, organizes, and describes cybersecurity work into seven categories, each comprised of several specialty areas and work roles.

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OPM Guide to Data Standards
Contains the OPM Cybersecurity Codes, based on the NICE Framework, for agencies to assign to positions performing information technology, cybersecurity, and cyber-related work.
A good position, chance, or prospect for advancement or success; an advantageous position. What about the scenario is positive for your agency? What about the scenario provides your agency a distinct advantage over other players in the space? What aspects of the scenario can you leverage to better achieve your mission and reduce damage caused by your adversaries?
Outcome Metric
A type of metric that indicates an evaluation and determination of progress against achieving the intended result of a program, plan, process, or activity.
Output Metric
A type of measure, specifically the tabulation, calculation, or recording of activity or effort, usually expressed quantitatively. Outputs describe the level of product or activity that will be provided over a period of time. Also referred to as an activity metric. Outputs are the products and services produced by a human capital program or activity. Outputs may include processes (e.g., paper flow, consultation) or attributes (e.g., efficiency, effectiveness, timeliness, accuracy).

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Performance Goal
A target level of performance expressed as a tangible, measurable objective against which actual performance can be compared, including a goal expressed as either a quantitative or qualitative standard, value, or rate.
A representative character upon which a future scenario is tested. Used primarily to illustrate the impact of potential developments at the individual level and to assist planners in considering the human aspects of a given set of futures.
The most important things that the Federal Government Human Capital community has to do, address, or must be done or addressed above all other activities.
Generally, an organized set of activities directed toward a common purpose or goal that an agency undertakes or proposes to carry out its responsibilities.
Program Evaluation
Individual, systematic studies to assess how well a program is working to achieve intended results or outcomes. Program evaluations are often conducted by experts external to the program either inside or outside an agency.

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Training individuals who have shown they have the aptitude to learn in a completely new occupation.
The desired effects when key elements of a critical success factor are effectively implemented. Results are expected for each system in the HCF in two categories effectiveness results and compliance results. Compliance results refer to specific statutory or regulatory requirements.
Robot Process Automation (RPA)
RPA is technology that enables a task to be automated using computer software. By completing repetitive, structured, rules-based tasks, the software makes it possible to automate business processes at scale. In many ways, RPA is the office equivalent of robots on a production line3.

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A plausible, future environment that participants will use to gather insights about the future. It is not a prediction, but a conceptual depiction of what the future may look like. It is used in conjunction with other scenarios. Together, they holistically paint a picture of what the future might be. Scenarios DO NOT predict the future, they bound the future and provide context for an uncertain environment. A scenario is a ‘story’ illustrating visions of possible future or aspects of possible future. Scenarios are not predictions about the future but rather similar to simulations of some possible futures. They are used both as an exploratory method or a tool for decision-making, mainly to highlight the discontinuities from the present and to reveal the choices available and their potential consequences4.
Scenario Progression
A continuous and connected series; a sequence of events. A method for moving from one scenario to another through a logical sequence of steps, usually disruptive events. This method avoids the need for participants to immerse themselves directly in an unfamiliar scenario.
Skill Gap
A variance between the current and projected workforce size and skills needed to ensure an agency has a cadre of talent available to meet its mission and make progress towards achieving its goals and objectives now and into the future.

A consistent practice within human capital management in which agencies strive towards in each of the four HCF systems. The standards ensure that an agency’s human capital management strategies, plans, and practices:

  1. Are integrated with strategic plans, annual performance plans and goals, and other relevant budget, finance, and acquisition plans;
  2. Contain measurable and observable performance targets;
  3. Are communicated in an open and transparent manner to facilitate cross-agency collaboration to achieve mission objectives; and
  4. Inform the development of human capital management priority goals for the Federal Government.
Strategic Plan
The Strategic Plan presents the long-term objectives an agency hopes to accomplish, set at the beginning of each new term of an Administration. It describes general and longer-term goals the agency aims to achieve, what actions the agency will take to realize those goals and how the agency will deal with the challenges likely to be barriers to achieving the desired result. An agency’s Strategic Plan should provide the context for decisions about performance goals, priorities, and budget planning, and should provide the framework for the detail provided in agency annual plans and reports.

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Talent Development
Talent Development cultivates a continuous learning and development environment to ensure that an agencies workforce can adapt to globalization, internal restructuring, and adaptations that affect how work is performed. Talent Development activities are aligned to an agencies Talent Management process to ensure that succession planning and retention is the organizational philosophy versus possessing the mindset of replacing the required skills sets. The integration of Talent Development with Talent Management includes the analysis of workforce data to determine how an agency will meet its needs through the development/re-development of talent who possesses the required skills.
Quantifiable or otherwise measurable characteristic typically expressed as a number that tells how well or at what level an agency or one of its components aspires to perform. In setting and communicating targets, where available, agencies should include the baseline value from which the target change is calculated.
The "Future of Work"
Driven by the acceleration of connectivity and cognitive technology, the nature of work is changing. As AI systems, robotics, and cognitive tools grow in sophistication, almost every job is being reinvented, creating what many call the “augmented workforce.” As this trend gathers speed, organizations must reconsider how they design jobs, organize work, and plan for future growth5.

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Driving forces for which a range of plausible future trajectories exists6.
Training individuals in the same occupation but in a new way (i.e., if automation overtakes certain job duties, training that individual in new work).

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A short story featuring a persona in a particular scenario. Intended to immerse the reader in the given future and assist in more complete visualization and understanding of a particular reality.

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Workforce Planning
A systematic and continuous process in which all levels of a (Department’s, Agencies, and Bureau’s) leadership and management team work in coordination with their CHCO to identify the size and composition of a workforce needed to achieve its goals and objectives. The process incorporates the practice of business intelligence to identify the knowledge and skills required (now and into the future) to then assess its current workforce to calculate the organizations gaps. The outputs of the workforce planning process will inform the implementation of agencies human capital strategy to ensure the organization is agile, resilient and able to respond to current and future impacts.

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Practitioner's Guide

Strategic Alignment

Leadership & Knowledge Management

Results-Oriented Performance Culture

Talent Management

Control Panel